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    siRNA,shRNA,dsRNA,miRNA间的区别
    发布日期:2015-03-15 14:50:21 浏览次数 :
    导读
    RNA干扰(RNAi),即用20多个核苷 酸组成的短的双链RNA(siRNA)代替传统反义核酸进行转录后基因沉默,已经迅速而广泛地应用到基因功能,基因表达调控机制研究等热门领域。

    啪啪三张牌怎么玩:siRNA,shRNA,dsRNA,miRNA间的区别

    yy智勇三张牌 www.hvfh.net RNA干扰(RNAi),即用20多个核苷 酸组成的短的双链RNA(siRNA)代替传统反义核酸进行转录后基因沉默,已经迅速而广泛地应用到基因功能,基因表达调控机制研究等热门领域,并为基因 治疗开辟了新的途径。近两年来,这方面的科学论文及报道爆炸性增长,几乎每天都有新的结果涌现。这些论文中,出现了很多与RNA干扰相关的概念,意思很相 近但并不完全相同,这里列举了几个常见的

    RNA干扰相关的名词及其简单的解释:

    1、 miRNA:在遗传学中,微 RNA(microRNAs,miRNA)是长度在21-23个核苷酸之间的单链RNA片段, 调节基因的表达。miRNA由基因编码,从DNA转录而来, 但不翻译成蛋白。初级转录产物(primary transcripts,pri-miRNA)缩短其颈环结构得到功能性的miRNA。成熟的miRNA分子与一个或更多个mRNA分子部分互补,其主要 功能是下调基因的表达。而microRNA这个概念第一次在2001年Science (26 October 2001)的文章中出现。

    2、 dsRNA: 双链RNA(double-stranded RNA, dsRNA)是一种有互补链的RNA,与细胞中发现的DNA相似,dsRNA构成了一些病毒(双链RNA病毒)的基因组。像病毒RNA或siRNA之类的 双链RNA能够促发真核细胞中的RNA干扰,引起脊椎动物中的干扰素反应。

    3、 shRNA:小发卡或短发卡RNA(a small hairpin RNA or short hairpin RNA, shRNA)是一段具有紧密发卡环(tight hairpin turn)的RNA序列,常被用于RNA干扰沉默靶基因的表达。利用载体把shRNA导入细胞,载体中的U6 启动子确保shRNA总是表达;这种装载了shRNA载体可被传递到子代细胞中去,从而使基因的沉默可被遗传。shRNA的发卡结构可被细胞机制切割成 siRNA,然后siRNA结合到RNA诱导沉默复合物上(RNA-induced silencing complex,RISC),该复合物能够结合到目的mRNAs并将其降解。shRNA 是由RNA 聚合酶Ⅲ转录的,哺乳细胞中的shRNA产物有时会促使细胞产生干扰素反应(细胞遇到病毒侵袭时做出的自我防卫反应),而miRNA中却不会遇到这种问题 (miRNA是由RNA聚合酶Ⅱ转录,与转录mRNA的聚合酶相同)。shRNA也被用于植物和其它系统中,在这些系统中不需要U6启动子的驱动。在植物 中,常用的增强表达的启动子是CaMV35S(
    cauliflower mosaic virus 35S),在这种情况下,RNA聚合酶Ⅱ参与了转录,起始RNA干扰。

    4、 siRNA:小或短干扰RNA(small/short interfering RNA, siRNA)是一类20-25个核苷酸长度的双链RNA分子,其主要在RNAi通路中起作用,干扰特异基因的表达。此外siRNA在RNAi相关的通路中 也起作用,如抗病毒机制,基因组染色体结构的塑造等。其结构是一段完全互补的RNA双链,两端各有两个未互补的的碱基。
    //www.hvfh.net/uploadfile/2015/0315/20150315025051995.jpg

    上一篇:RNAi干扰基本实验路线     
  • 【专题】河北省无偿献血领导小组会议报道 2019-05-05
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